Saturday, August 22, 2020

Shakespeare and Robert Browning

Introduction Shakespeare and Browning both present the topic of want through their focal characters. Woman Macbeth (and Macbeth) is roused by the longing for aspiration and authority in ‘Macbeth’ while in the Browning monologs; the monologists are driven by the craving of intensity and control in ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ and vengeance in ‘The laboratory’. All of which appear to have lethal determinations because of every one of their desires.As the writings were created over 400years back, crowds may have discovered crafted by Shakespeare and Browning profoundly provocative and engaging while contemporary crowds finding the various parts of want relatable to current circumstances. Woman Macbeth’s requirement for expert in her well known discourse ‘unsex me here’ considers the sentiments of numerous ladies around then aching for power.Likewise, crowds of the ‘the Laboratory’ can feel for the protagonist’s want for retribution upon their two-faced darling. In ‘Porphyria’s Lover’, Browning uncovers a fanatical and controlling persona who can just fulfill his supreme love for his sweetheart by choking her, introducing his longing for power over others. Area 1: How do the essayists present the focal characters? Woman MACBETH Lady Macbeth’s prologue to the crowd in Act 1, Scene 5 quickly makes it understood of her aims. ‘Come, you spirits that tend on mortal musings, unsex me here, and fill me, from the crown to the toe, top-loaded with direst cruelty’. As this is a discourse, it welcomes the crowd in to see her internal contemplations and believing and her actual want for power. * Her utilization of basic action words, ‘come’ and ‘fill me’ not just informs the crowd of her craving for power, however the lengths she is willing go to accomplish it. Woman Macbeths notice of the otherworldly shows how edgy she is for her long ing as she hungers for to gangs attributes of a man by calling upon the ‘spirits’ and this potentially affirms the dull association she has to the witches prescience as she utilizes telling language ‘come’ followed by extraordinary references ‘spirits’ and just calls upon them. * She says ‘come to me woman’s bosom and take my milk for gall’. Expressing the physical contrasts of guys and females not just shows the constraints of her longing (she is a lady), yet considers the situation of ladies at the time since she is arguing to have all her ladylike characteristics emoved to achieve her craving. * Likewise, when she says ‘that tend on moral thoughts’ unsex me here’ she is asking the spirits to de-feminize and fix her common request her as she needs to be deadpan and not feel remorseful as she perceives that her longing conflicts with the ethical request in this manner stressing her solid sentiment of wan t and how far she will go. It could likewise be contended that the way that ladies needed to act in specific manners in the sixteenth century, for example being totally against viciousness of any sorts, may have prodded on woman Macbeth to revolt and accomplish her craving. Additionally, the reference to ‘direst savagery; make thick my blood’ further backings her depiction to the crowd as a shrewd and debased character. The utilization of the semi-colon underscores the utilization of the word ‘cruelty’ which is a quality seen to be manly not ladylike * This may have been stunning yet engaging to the Elizabethan crowds as ladies around then weren’t expected to act and think in such a manner. * The way that when we meet her when Macbeth is absent (or any one else) gives her craving for power as she is mentioning to us what she needs THE LABORATORY Similarly, in Robert Browning’s monolog of ‘The laboratory’ the crowd are made complet ely mindful of the storytellers expectations from the earliest starting point. ‘May look thro’ these swoon smokes twisting whitely’. The personae depicts lethal arsenic exhaust as something lovely which proposes to the peruser that she is some place where substance responses happen thus the title. * The way that we are acquainted with her in this setting brings a dull air like introduction of woman Macbeth * This may depict indications of madness which sketchy all through the sonnet. Reference to the ‘devils smithy’ further improves her longing for retribution as she probably is aware she is accomplishing something terrible by setting off to a fallen angels smithy * ‘Poison to harm her’-strengthens the story to slaughter and the main look to who the vengeance is on (‘her) and doesn’t notice the name * It shows how disturbed the hero's temperament has become, who ventures to such an extreme as to harm her adversary in affecti on The utilization of rhyming revives the pace of the sonnet, adding to the lady's expanding fervor as the pharmacist crushes the mixture.Many of Browning's sonnets were expounded on individuals with a bizarre nature. From the outset, the sonnet seems, by all accounts, to be composed as though she were conversing with the pharmacist, however adding something extra to it shows that she might be contemplating internally as toward the beginning of the sonnet she advises the man to take as much time as is needed, yet as she ponders the potential outcomes and force the toxic substance will bring her she starts to hustle him. Her reckless demeanor towards her future wrongdoing proposes that she may have recently murdered and couldn't care less about being discovered as she is pleased with what she will have done. PORPHYRIA’S LOVER ‘ the downpour set early tonight’-today around evening time is a period marker and potentially portends something that will happen this even ing * Use of pitiable deception climate mirrors feeling felt by the storyteller * Irregular rhyme design may show storytellers instabilltiy * No refrains â€reflective of the storytellers mental state/character * When fixated can’t quit looking at something * Build up of strain toward the starting to get to the peak COMPARRISON OF ALL * All beginning in an evil desolate manner * Section 2: How do the scholars show that craving inspires and drives these characters?LADY MACBETH * Act 1, Scene 7-‘When you durst do it; at that point you were a man’ shows Lady Macbeths play on manliness as she utilizes the ideal tense ‘were’ featuring the distinction now and before which incites Macbeth and thusly controls him to proceed with the execution of Macbeth with will get permit her to accomplish her longing for power (again shows how far she is happy to go to accomplish bliss) * Strong symbolism and emotive lang-energetic * Blank stanza rather than composition * Shakespeare utilizes an illustration and difference to show that Lady Macbeth is ruthless.In Act I scene 7, when Macbeth needs to pull out of killing Duncan, she tells Macbeth â€Å"I have given suck, and know/How delicate 'tis to cherish the angel that milks me:/I would, while it was grinning in my face,/Have pluck'd my areola from his boneless gums,/And dash'd the cerebrums out, had I so sworn as you†. * First, Lady Macbeth utilizes female language, demonstrating she recognizes being delicate and supporting with words like â€Å"tender love† and â€Å"milk†. Be that as it may, at that point, she stuns the crowd by utilizing brutal language, for example, â€Å"dashed the cerebrums out†.This is an upsetting picture; it causes the crowd to comprehend that Lady Macbeth would put a guarantee before the life of her own kid. * Lady Macbeth appears to have no issue with savagery of the cruelest kind: viciousness against a youngster. What makes Lady Macbeth s ound significantly progressively savage are words like as â€Å"boneless† and â€Å"smiling† on the grounds that the infant sounds helpless, yet Lady Macbeth won’t show it kindness. * By having Lady Macbeth talk about submitting child murder, Shakespeare makes her a scalawag according to the crowd, on the grounds that during the 1600s, ladies were viewed as delicate and nurturing.Behaving along these lines would be viewed as unnatural and would have stunned Shakespeare’s crowd. * This shows how her she is driven by want in light of the fact that for Lady Macbeth (who depicts a solid personae) to discuss how she comprehends what I’s like to be a ‘woman’ and be supporting, which doesn’t happen regularly in the play, as an approach to control her significant other into getting into power shows how determined she is and again how far she’ll go. THE LAB * Browning additionally presents the peruser with a character who is total ly heartless with regards to satisfying her desires.Although Lady Macbeth wants power though the speaker in â€Å"The Laboratory† wants retribution, they share a similar assurance to get what they need paying little mind to the result. When conversing with the scientific expert about her arrangements for vengeance the speaker says â€Å"and Elize, with her head, and her bosom, and her hands should drop dead! †. Much the same as the introduction of Lady Macbeth, Browning additionally paints a striking picture of death and murder. Worryingly for the peruser, Browning emphatically proposes the speaker’s happiness regarding the possibility of her rival’s death.By rehashing the word â€Å"and† it recommends that she is savoring retribution and furthermore that she has considered it the same amount of. Area 3: How do the authors show how want influences connections in the content? Area 4: How do the journalists show the outcomes/results of want? Woman MA CBETH * In the last phases of the play the consequence of Lady Macbeth’s want for power turns out to be clear when she loses her psychological steadiness and starts to re-live the homicide she and her significant other submitted. While in her room she expresses the expression: * ‘Out cursed spot! * Out I state! *  The utilization of the order here obviously shows the way that Lady Macbeth †a once incredible and want driven lady †is getting progressively precarious. Shakespeare’s utilization of the redundancy of the word out shows how edgy she has become,

Thursday, July 16, 2020

Why India Lacks Women Written Memoirs Critical Linking, July 24, 2019

Why India Lacks Women Written Memoirs Critical Linking, July 24, 2019 Critical Linking, a daily roundup of the most interesting bookish links from around the web is sponsored by Libro.FM “Besharam,” a word that means “shameless” in Hindi, is almost used exclusively against women who get “out of line.” It’s also the title of a collection of essays by Priya Alika Elias in which she reclaims the word while crafting a manual of sorts for the modern Indian woman. Besharam was the first time in my 30 years that I felt completely represented within a memoir; though fiction abounds in India, memoirs written by women remain conspicuously absent. Why? It can’t be because Indian women have nothing to say. A great read that takes a look at the lack of memoirs written by women in India. Enter Todd Alcott, who’s been delighting us all year with his “mid-century mashups,” an irresistible combination of vintage paperback covers, celebrity personae, and iconic lyrics from the annals of rock and pop. His homage to Help Me, above, is decidedly on brand. The lurid 1950s EC horror comic-style graphics confer a dishy naughtiness that wasâ€"no disrespectâ€"rather lacking in the original. Joni Mitchell reimagined as pulp fiction book coversâ€"I love when artists do this. Amazon removed books by Dr. Joseph Nicolosi, a clinical psychologist who is credited with originating gay conversion therapy, a debunked â€" and in some cases illegal â€" pseudoscientific method of trying to turn gay people straight. Nonetheless, the Republicans want to lobby to get his books â€" such as “A Parents Guide to Preventing Homosexuality” and “Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality” â€" back in circulation. The phobics are still at it. Sign up to Today In Books to receive  daily news and miscellany from the world of books.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Agency Costs On The Investment Performance Of Australian Pension Funds Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1566 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? In Australia, the superannuation industry has undergone a rapid expansion since the introduction of a compulsory pension system in 1992. Superannuation assets grew from $245 billion to 942 billion in 10 years (Benson et al., 2010). Investors and consumers now have vast choice in their ability to pick a pension fund, ranging from non-profit funds, such as corporate, public sector and industry superannuation funds, and for-profit retail funds. However, there was a dearth of empirical studies which aimed to clarify any systematic differences in the performance of these respective funds. This is an important policy consideration as even small differences in cost and returns can have large remuneration ramifications in the long term. Bateman (2001) identified that a 1% change in costs could lead to a 22% change in returns on retirement. As such, it is crucial to analyse potential differences in returns between fund types and ensure retirees maximise their retirement in come savings as performance ultimately affects welfare (Clark and Unwin, 2008). Systematically lower net returns will reduce final retirement savings. This can increase reliance upon the public pension system than would have otherwise been required under lower cost and higher return funds. In Coleman et al.s (2006) article, the authors utilised a large cross-sectional database which encapsulated not-for-profit and for-profit funds, elaborating on prior studies which tended to only consider for-profit providers. The article aimed to gain understanding of the performance of the Australian superannuation industry from 1997 to 2002, evaluating in terms of risk, returns and expenses, and what factors in particular were the determinants of investment performance. The core approach to these questions adopted a fund type comparison to enable the authors to ascertain whether the varying characteristics between not-for-profit and for-profit affected fund net return and performance. Desp ite the adoption of a prudent person approach according to the Superannuation Industry (Supervision) Act 1993, the driving force behind potential disparities was hypothesised to be agency costs which manifest due to variations in the trustee board structure. In not-for-profit funds, consisting of the corporate, public sector and industry funds, equal representation is required from members of the fund and employers. In contrast, for-profit funds are non-representative and trustee board members are often employees of the professional financial institution who provide and manage the fund. As such retail funds are expected to have much higher agency costs which emerge in various ways. Without member representation, having only employees of the company on a trustee board creates conflicts of interest as the company aims to make a profit from providing superannuation services, whilst simultaneously attempting to maximise their customers retirement savings. Unlike not-for-profit funds whi ch have established customer bases originating from industries of work, retail funds need to create networks and entice employees into their fund, often through commission-based financial planners. Commissions involve more cost for consumers, but more earnings for planners than fee-for-service charges. As retail funds are the only fund type that pays commissions, it creates an incentive for financial planners to advise their clients into retail funds, and encourages purchase of other financial products which is driven by commission, not independent and sage advice. Effective fund choice is further limited by agency costs which generates high exit fees to deter customers transferring their pension to another fund, another result of how retail funds have no established customer base. By dissecting performance through fund type, various features within each fund type could be assessed for any material effect on performance, such as size and economies of scale, returns over time and benefit structure. It is presupposed that for funds with a larger amount of financial assets, any fixed costs involved in administration and management, both of the fund and individual accounts, would be spread out over a greater volume of cash, resulting in lower average costs. Likewise, large funds should be able to negotiate more competitive fees due to the increased influence and bargaining power they can attain due to their size. Using return on assets, volatility on returns and expense ratios as a measure of performance Coleman et al.s (2006) analysis found that not-for-profit funds outperformed for-profit funds, with not-for-profit funds reporting significantly higher risk-adjusted returns. The difference in returns amount to an estimated 228 to 318 basis points per annum (Coleman et al., 2006). Another significant finding was that for-profit retail funds have significantly higher expense ratios than not-for-profit funds, which helped to drive the difference in net returns between the fund types. The higher expenses for retails funds were associated with marketing and networking costs which aim to establish and expand their customer base. Performance across fund types was also assessed in terms of risk-adjusted performance using the Sharpe ratio and Jensen alpha, both of which are measures of the returns received relative to risk taken. In terms of risk-adjusted performance using the Sharpe ratio, retail funds again had a statistically significantly lower performance, with a ratio 20-30% lower than not-for-profit funds. The alternative measure of the Jensen alpha also recorded significant differences between not-for-profit and for-profit funds. The greatest disparity occurred between the industry and public sector funds with the retail funds in the multiple index model with market timing. This suggests industry and public sector funds have more active management of their asset allocation to take advantage of fortuitous market movements. The res ults were concluded to be consistent with the hypothesis that agency costs exist to create differential performance between not-for-profit and for-profit funds (Coleman et al., 2006). The lack of a representative trustee board creates behaviour that fails to minimise expenses, resulting in lower returns for for-profit funds. That fund features such as size and benefit structure were not significant determinants of performance simply allows greater explanatory power to be attributed to agency costs for the stark performance between not-for-profit and for-profit funds. This study expands upon prior studies to provide a quantitative figure on the adverse effect of agency costs upon superannuation funds. Whilst Coleman et al. (2006) published a thoroughly researched articles, there are some methodological issues that emerged. A chronic problem was the underreporting of expenses where external expenses were often deducted from the gross return on assets. Therefore explicit figures of external management costs were often unavailable yet still need to be taken into account for the expense ratio. To remedy this, external costs were estimated using the average management ratio reported in the annual returns of 25 pension funds during 2001 or 2002, which is at least on par with (Rice and McEwin, 2002) or is a conservative estimate (Clare, 2001) compared to other studies. This would be more accurate if the sample taken was representative of the superannuation industry and not skewed towards particular cost functions of any fund type. However, it homogenises costs between fund types, which is far from the truth according to Coleman et als results. Subsidies in corporate funds also posed problems, possibly leading to an underestimated expense cost. This is difficult to correct for as subsidies may not be used uniformly, providing only a caveat for potentially understated corporate expense figures. The articles sample time period from 1997 to 2002 may also detrimental ly affect the results. Its relevance to the current superannuation industry can be questioned due to the introduction of the Superannuation Choice Act No. 82 in 2005. Future research should determine whether member fund choice has affected performance or fees. Fund behaviour may have altered in order to gain competitive advantage, e.g. increased advertisements to attract and retain members. The survey period of 7 years is sufficient to observe several peaks and troughs, however, whether these trends are an accurate estimation of performance throughout a members lifetime is uncertain. In Coleman et al. (2006), the results of the Jensen alpha multiple index model suggested that corporate and public sector funds had more active management which allowed them to reap higher returns throughout the sample period. This contrasts Drew and Stanford (2003), who subscribes to the Efficient Market Hypothesis which states that securities markets are informationally efficient. Hence, profit is alr eady maximised and active management strategies are futile. A longer time frame of study should be adopted in the future in order to ensure the long term trend is captured, particularly since retirement savings is also a long term goal. Whilst Coleman et al. (2006) delivered a thorough analysis of investment performance by fund type, they acknowledged that they the experiment was not completely controlled. Differing allocation strategies can influence investment growth and this would create bias in the results if fund types were correlated with particular asset allocation and growth trends. For example, where retail funds tend towards more conservative asset allocation than not-for-profit funds (Ellis et al., 2008). Evidence of the alignment of asset allocation in the data was displayed by the high correlation between fund performance with a known balanced asset allocation. However, Ellis et al. (2008) improve the analysis further by directly controlling for asset allocation thro ugh analysing performance by investment option. This controls for the varying risk preferences and financial products utilised by fund members, synchronising fund type analysis. Ellis et al.s (2008) results showed that expenses and taxes were the only significant determinant of investment performance. It confirms Coleman et al.s (2006) findings, where net return relative to a benchmark return for retail funds in a standardised default option significantly underperformed the other fund types. Underperformance and higher costs in retails funds reflect the agency costs associated with for-profit funds as the trustee board struggle between attaining pension fund growth and earning profit. Hence Coleman et al.s (2006) are evidently robust and exposed the varying performances of pension fund types. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Agency Costs On The Investment Performance Of Australian Pension Funds Finance Essay" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Feminism Is For Everyone By Bell Hook - 958 Words

Feminism is for everyone bell hook is a famous feminist author who wrote the book â€Å"Feminism Is For Everybody† hooks attempt to create a quick, simple start on feminist history, theory, and politics to the masses who receive a misinformation, misunderstood, and maligned version of the feminist movement. Hooks says â€Å"To understand feminism it implies one has to necessarily understand sexism†.We define feminism as the advocacy of women s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.Where she simply define and shows that being feminism does not mean women have to become mean or they are better than men,she simply saying that men and women need to be equal like the civil right movements. The book begins with a brief statement of feminist political positions, then discusses some history of the movement.She discusses the change in the movement from personal to groups where women have close relationships with one another and began to feel pe rsonally empowered by their participation in the establishment of large, and how some women feel like they are working for the high middle-class women.Every single time it doesn’t matter you a women or men, you will always have someone in the higher level than you.hooks feel like it will very exciting for the women who have the power to work with other so they could build each other up..Hooks views the formation of large women’s organizations as the beginning of a stage where the movement took on the role ofShow MoreRelatedFeminism Is For Everyone By Bell Hooks And Men And Feminism750 Words   |  3 PagesWhat is Feminism? Feminism. The f-word. This word has many different connotations. The dictionary definition of feminism is the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men ( The simpler, more stereotypical, definition is policies that are pro-women and anti-men. Before this class all I ever heard, was that the stereotypical feminist is a woman who hates all men and everything about men. She probably does not shave (ever) and she is mostRead MoreThe Black Imagination By Bell Hooks837 Words   |  4 Pagesauthor bell hooks brings our attention to her opinion of the impression colored people would have on about white people. Bell hooks opens her article by informing us about the times of slavery and how black people would gossip about what they have observed of the white folk. This knowledge was shared for their survival and easier living as domestic servants. Now, however, colored and white people live coherent with one another but hooks ar gues that even now the hatred still exists. Hooks explainsRead MoreExplanatory And Dig Deep By Sheryl Sandberg793 Words   |  4 Pagesversions of the definition of feminism, the importance of a â€Å"life partner†, and how women are to achieve things in life. In contrast, Bell Hooks, feminist and author, responds to Sandberg’s book with an opposing view on the issues of modern feminism. The definition of Feminism is very different to every person. Each interpretation is influenced by individual thought on feminism, based on their unique life experiences. Sandberg never gives a black and white definition of feminism but instead, builds upRead MoreA Rhetorical Analysis Of Gender Equality Essay1347 Words   |  6 Pagesexactly is it? Well to answer that, it is the view that everyone should receive equal treatment and not be discriminated against based on gender. Today, most women are getting treated differently compared to men. Whether it is based on pay gap, power, or strength the problem comes up. Men think they are stronger and better than women and this upsets women because it makes them feel like they don’t have a place in this world. This is where feminism comes into place. I chose this topic because I can relateRead More Expanding Feminist Activism Essay1263 Words   |  6 Pages Expanding Feminist Activism I chose this topic mainly because of interest. When thinking about the idea of feminism aside from all stereotypes one would think the struggle for womens rights. The idea sounds unified in saying and one would assume most women were involved. For a long time the womens movement applied to just white upper class females. I found a source on extremist women, which focused on the powerful ideas of white supremacy. This article was geared toward white women, and theRead MoreFeminism And The Age Of Media1337 Words   |  6 PagesMy Change in Defining Feminism It was my honor to take ENGL 1102 with Dr. Allukian this semester. ENGL 1102, Feminism in the Age of Media, is a course focus on the theoretical world of feminism: feminism definitions and its presentations in real life. Through the reading of various feminist theories by famous pioneers such as bell hooks and Sandra Bartky, I gradually understand the concept of feminism. The further practices of integrating my learning with practices such as making videos and presentingRead MoreThe Women s Movement And The Development Of Feminism Essay1702 Words   |  7 Pagesspark of the women’s movement and the development of feminism in the twentieth century. According to feminist writer, bell hooks, in â€Å"Introduction: Come Closer to Feminism,† hooks identifies that feminism is for everyone because ‘feminism is a movement to end sexism’ (hooks 10). In other words, implying that it is not men that are the problem but the behavior and ideals sexism itself because wo men and men are both capable of being sexist. Feminism is not just about women getting equal rights as menRead MoreAnalysis Of Bell Hooks And Frantz Fanon1401 Words   |  6 PagesBoth philosophers, bell hooks and Frantz Fanon, address the problem of equality. In Feminism is for Everybody, hooks defines feminism as a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression. Hooks begins by stating feminism is for everybody (2000) and that it is an attempt to end sexism though reform feminism. In â€Å"Racism and Culture,† Fanon investigates whether ending racism is due to cultural relativity. In the book by Gloria Anzaldua Borderlands/La Frontera, she describes the personalRead More Keeping Close to Home by bell hooks Essay1265 Words   |  6 Pagesacademically based, bell hookss essay Keeping Close to Home: Class and Education is an essay that I consider to be very touching. While arguing in her essay that the rich class and the working-class should come to respect an d understand each other, bell hooks employs three elements of argument: ethos, pathos, and logos. With her usage of ethos, hooks relates her experience as an undergraduate at Stanford. Providing an experience from a time before she went to Stanford, hooks uses pathos to inspireRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Aint I A Woman 1079 Words   |  5 PagesAlonia Lewis Canonical Text Prof. Barnes March 16, 2016 In 1992, Bell Hooks published â€Å"Aint I a Woman† after working on it for several years. â€Å"Aint I a Woman† is a book detailing the lives of Black women in America from Slavery to the present and their relation to feminism. Hooks felt that there was an absence of books about the African American woman that were available. While there were books about individual African American women and their experiences in the oppressive American system, she

Downstream Petroleum Industry Free Essays

string(67) " responsibility over specific territories referred to as branches\." Downstream – From Refinery to Customer The downstream sector encompasses the refining, storage, distribution and marketing of petroleum products: †¢Refining Process: Crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products; †¢Storage: The products from the refining process are stored at depots via pipeline, land (trucks rail) and sea (barge/vessel). These storage facilities are also called tank farms or terminals †¢Distribution and Marketing: Petroleum products are distributed from storage locations to the end-user directly or through retail outlets The major products produced by a refinery are, Kerosene, Premium Motor Spirit (â€Å"PMS† – Gasoline), Automotive Gas Oil (Diesel), Fuel Oils, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Lubricating Oils, Naphtha and Tar Figure 1. – Schematic Representation of the Downstream Business ? The Nigerian Downstream Sector The Federal Government of Nigeria (â€Å"FGN†) participates in the activities of the oil industry (upstream and downstream) as well as actively supervising it due to its strategic importance to the economy. We will write a custom essay sample on Downstream Petroleum Industry or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the downstream industry, FGN regulates and participates through the following agencies / bodies: Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (â€Å"NNPC†) –NNPC has powers and operational interest in refining, petrochemicals, product transportation and marketing. NNPC has nine wholly-owned subsidiaries, two partly owned subsidiaries and nineteen associated companies that manage the upstream and downstream activities. Those relevant to the downstream business are the Pipeline Products Marketing Company (â€Å"PPMC), Kaduna Refining Petrochemicals Company Limited (â€Å"KRPC†), Warri Refining Petrochemicals Limited (â€Å"WRPC†) and Port Harcourt Refining Petrochemicals Limited. Department of Petroleum Resources (â€Å"DPR†) – DPR is an arm of the Federal Ministry of Petroleum Resources and has responsibilities for the following: †¢Issuing of permits and licenses for all activities connected with petroleum exploration, production, refining, storage, marketing, transportation and distribution; Acting as an agency for the enforcement of the provisions of the petroleum Act, NNPC Art or any other enactment. Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Agency (PPPRA) – The PPPRA came to being from a Special Committee that was set up to review Petroleum Products Supply and Distribution (SCRPPSD) drawn from various stakeholders and other interest groups to look into t he problems of the downstream petroleum sector. The functions of PPPA are: †¢To determine the pricing policy of petroleum products; To regulate the supply and distribution of petroleum products †¢To create an information databank through liaison with all relevant agencies to facilitate the making of informed and realistic decisions on pricing policies †¢To moderate volatilities in petroleum products prices, while ensuring reasonable returns to operators †¢To establish parameters and codes of conduct for all operators in the downstream sector. Petroleum Equalisation Fund (PEF) – The PEF fund board was established to equalize the transport cost arising from the distribution of petroleum products to all parts of the country i. . the cost of transporting products from source to point of sales. This is to ensure that petroleum products are made available in all retail outlets at uniform prices in Nigeria, and to avoid shortage of petroleum products. Petroleum S ubsidy Fund (PSF) – is a pool of funds budgeted by FGN to stabilise the domestic prices of petroleum products against the volatility in international crude and products prices. CBN is the custodian of the fund, while PPPRA administers it. Claims from / payment into the fund is subjected to duly verified volume of products lifted out of the approved depot and sold in-line with recommended open market prices. ? Marketing Companies The Nigerian downstream industry is comprised of two groups of marketing companies: Major Marketers – The companies in this group include AP Plc, Conoil Plc, Mobil Oil Plc, OANDO Plc, Total Nigeria Plc and Chevron Oil Nigeria Plc and accounted for 71% of total petroleum products sold. They belong to trade association called Major Oil Marketers Association of Nigeria (MOMAN). Independent Marketers – The Independent marketers, comprises largely indigenous petroleum marketing companies. The FGN introduced the Independent Marketing Scheme in 1978 because of petroleum products shortage of the 1970s and the lack of sufficient investment by major marketing companies in the rural areas. This led to the establishment of the Independent Marketers Association of Nigeria (IPMAN) in 1982. Membership is open to every independent marketer duly licensed and authorised to operate by the NNPC or other appropriate organisation in charge of this function. The trade group of these companies is referred to as the independent Marketers Association of Nigeria (IPMAN). Examples of Independent marketers are Zenon Petroleum, Capital Oil Gas and Ascon Oil Gas. OANDO Marketing Limited (â€Å"OML†) Oando Marketing Limited one of the companies within the Oando Plc group, is a leading oil and gas marketing company with over 500 retail outlets and a commercial clientele base that cuts across all industry sectors such as manufacturing, construction, oil gas and telecommunications in Nigeria and the West Africa sub region. OML has been in the business of marketing and supply of petroleum products since 1956. OML markets a wide range of products including Premium Motor Spirit (PMS), Automotive Gas Oil (AGO also known as Diesel), Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK), Aviation Turbine Kerosene(ATK), Low Pour Fuel Oil (LPFO), Lubricating Oils and Greases, Insecticides, Bitumen, Chemicals, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG, also known as Cooking gas) and Oando insecticide Products and Uses AGO – fuel for some vehicles and marine vessels as well as for powering generators; PMS – fuel for most vehicles; DPK – fuel for cooking stove and used as a solvent to produce specialized products for road construction; ATK – fuel for aircraft; LPFO – fuel for power generation and for heating; Lubricants – lubricating oil for vehicles and equipments; Bitumen – used in the construction industry for paving roads; LPG – used as cooking and heating gas. Departments The departments in OML can be classified under the following: Core – Retail, Commercial, Marketing, Operations Logistics and Engineering Terminal. Support – Finance, Corporate Services (HR, HCM, Legal and Procurement Services), ICA, EHSQ, Service Standards and Corporate Marketing Communications. ? Retail Business Management and sales of Oando products to customers via sales outlets (over 500) nationwide is the function of the retail department. The sales focus is centred on the Total White Products (PMS, AGO and HHK), while Lubricants, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Insecticide sales provide a diversified revenue source for the team. Structure Sales is managed by Branch Managers located across the country, with each having responsibility over specific territories referred to as branches. You read "Downstream Petroleum Industry" in category "Essay examples" Their activities are coordinated by Branch Coordination Managers and the department is led by the Chief Sales Officer – Retail, with overall responsibility for all activities. Retail Outlets †¢Company Owned Service Station (â€Å"COSS†) – The stations under this category are owned by OML and dealers are appointed to operate the stations on OML’s behalf. †¢Third Party Owned – These are outlets owned by third parties, which carry OML’s colour and brand. OML’s main responsibility is to supply these outlets with petroleum products and on their part the owners of the outlets agree to operate in accordance to standards agreed by both parties. There are two types of third party outlets: oGallonage – The stations and equipment under this category are fully owned by the third parties, while OML brands the outlets and supply products to it. oLoan Delivery and Equipment (â€Å"LDE†) – Here, OML provides equipments such as pumps, generators and canopies, as well as branding and supply of products. The retail outlets also serve as business opportunities via Non-Fuel Revenue (NFR) activities (such as Quick Service Restaurants) that maximize the returns on shareholders investments, improve asset utilisation and maximize our medium-long term capital gains. Commercial Department The core function of the commercial department is the sale of products (AGO, PMS, DPK, ATK, LPFO, Lubricants, Bitumen and LPG) to large volume end users hinged on effective relationship management. Sales are usually made in bulk to clients most often on pre-determined trade terms basis. Structure Sales is managed by Branch Managers located across the country, with each having responsibility over specific territories referred to as branches. Their activities are coordinated by Commercial Service Managers, based in the head office in Lagos. The department is led by the Chief Sales Officer, with overall responsibility for the activities above as well as for the below-mentioned specialized units: †¢Marine Unit – sale of petroleum products to (and management of relationship) upstream oil gas companies as well as their service providers; Aviation Unit – sale of ATK and management of relationship with airlines. Services The commercial department offer a arrange of services in conjunction to the products it markets as it realized that customers want much more than just the products. Examples of such services include: Vendor Managed Inventory (â€Å"VMI†) Scheme – The Oando In-Support scheme (our in-house model of the VMI) is a means of opti mizing customers supply chain, whereby Oando becomes responsible for maintaining the inventory level of petroleum products at its customers’ location. The major benefit of this to the customer is that it can focus on its core function while Oando manages petroleum products inventory. For Oando, the VMI scheme allows it to secure Oando Sea Station – This is a Ship-to-Shore and Shore-to-Ship service station that provides fuels and lubricants for shipping companies, marine logistics companies operating in the Niger-Delta coastline as well as energy services organizations providing support to the upstream exploration and production companies operating in deep water coastal shores of Nigeria. Supply Contract – This service allows customers the opportunity to enjoy a fairly stable price regime at a committed volume over a period of time. It is a modified form of In-support suitable for customers whose operations cannot permit full inventory take over. Marketing The core function of the marketing department is to initiate business deals and provide platforms to enable the sales departments (retail commercial) effectively achieve their goals and objectives. Structure The department is led by the Head, Marketing with overall responsibility for the following units: Lubricants Unit: The Lubricants unit is responsible for marketing Oando’s lubricants by creating product awareness through marketing promotions and supporting sales drive of lubricants in line with Oando’s goals and objectives. The unit also develops a high calibre technical sales support function while ensuring product quality assurance, cost management and service delivery to customers. A core responsibility of this unit is constantly identifying and initiating new/additional product lines for various target consumer markets. LPG Unit: – The LPG Unit is primarily aimed at sourcing for product, providing support and devising innovative selling methods to the sales team to ensure they meet their volume and margin targets as well as satisfying their customers’ needs. The team also provides the sales team with market intelligence to ensure that they strategically positioned to make sales. The unit, in addition, serves as an interface between the sales team and other support units within the organization i. e. Logistics, CCU, Engineering and EHSQ. Non-Fuel Revenue (NFR) Unit: – The Non-Fuels Revenue (NFR) unit is a strategic initiative developed to complement the shrinking margins on sales of fuel products and tap into the emerging opportunities of Non-fuel business from Retail outlets. Non-fuel offerings in retail outlets can also serve as a customer pull to increase fuel sales. Some NFR offerings include: Quick Service Restaurants (â€Å"QSR†), Automatic Teller Machines, Rent contribution from dormant assets (warehouses and offices), Income from Telecom Mast sites, revamp and increase lube bay rentals lubes contribution to stations and car wash operation. Bulk Products Unit – The Bulk unit is responsible for developing and executing marketing plans to support the sales team in achieving their objectives in the sales of Bitumen and LPFO. The unit provides useful information about the construction sector of the economy, market trends, competitors’ activities and consumer preferences that helps in taking business decisions. It also provides back-end support for improving the quality of service delivery in our Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) concept. ? Operations Logistics Department The Operations Logistics (â€Å"OL†) department is primarily responsible for product sourcing and distribution to customers. OL is also responsible for product storage via warehouses and LPG Plants, and Lubricants blending via the Kaduna Lubricants Plant (â€Å"KLP†). Management of products at the terminals is handled by Engineering Terminals department. Structure The department is structured into four units, each with a head responsible for activities in the unit. Overall departmental responsibility is with the General Manager, Operations Logistics. Logistics oInbound – supply planning and product receipt; oTrade Procurement Products – product sourcing; oOutbound – handles product received from NNPC depots; oFleet – Management of relationship with transporters. †¢Customer Care Unit oScheduling – handle delivery request and schedule the trucks; oDispatch – prepare the trucks for trips; oFleet – work with the tran sporters; oCall Center – handle inquiries and complaints. †¢Warehouse LPG Plant oWarehouse – storage locations for Lubricants and Oando Insecticide before final distribution to customers. Lubricants are received at the warehouses from KLP, while with Oando Insecticide (currently being imported), product is received into Apapa for distribution other warehouses. Currently, OML has 14 warehouses across the county. oLPG Filing Plants – storage locations for LPG. Currently OML has 7 plants across the country. †¢Kaduna Lube Plant – consists of two blending plants both located in Kaduna with combined capacity of 55 million litres per annum producing various range of lubricant products for commercial and retail customers. Terminals Engineering Department The Engineering Terminals department is responsible for managing infrastructural assets across board inclusive of the operations at storage terminals. Structure There are two main units: †¢Terminals – are storage locations (exclusive of warehouses and LPG Plants) where products are received, stored and eventually distributed. The following are the terminals owned by OML: oApapa Terminal 1; oApapa Terminal 2; oApapa Joint Venture (with Total Nigeria Plc); oOnne Terminal, Port Harcourt; oPort Harcourt Terminal. Each of these locations is headed by a Terminal Manager TM who reports to the Head of Terminals Engineering. OML also stores product at third party locations such as Lister. Currently, Oando Terminals has capacity for holding various products as follows: oPMS – 80 Million Litres; oAGO – 33 Million Litres; oLPFO – 5. 67 Million Litres; oHHK – 5 Million Litres; oBitumen – 10,000 Metric Tonnes. †¢Engineering – execution of capital projects and maintenance of equipments and facilities. The activities in this unit are grouped as shown below: oProject – oversees capital projects less than N100M oRetail Network Maintenance – oversees maintenance and deployment of retail outlet equipment Retail Facility Maintenance – oversees maintenance of retail outlet infrastructure oTerminal Depot Maintenance – oversees maintenance of facilities and equipments at terminals and depots Support Departments Environment, Health, Safety, Security and Quality Assurance (â€Å"EHSSQ†) – reduce operational and accident cost, elimin ate down time, ensure total compliance with regulatory and statutory requirements, deliver world class quality products and services to enhance customer satisfaction, while guarantying sustainable development in line with the Oando vision. Internal Control Audit (â€Å"ICA†) – safeguarding OML’s assets, ensuring operational efficiency, ensuring compliance with applicable laws and regulations and ensuring the accuracy and reliability of financial reporting. Service Standards – ensures and monitors service standards across various locations. Finance – provide OML with financial support for business and operational planning. OML Finance (head office) is divided into three main units namely: oTreasury; oManagement Information System; Financial Control. Corporate Services – supports OML business via the following services: oLegal – provide OML with cost-effective and efficient legal services support to and manage the inherent risks in OML’s businesses; oProcurement – assist OML in the acquisition of goods and services; oHuman Resource – provide OML with effective people management solutions. Marketing Communications – promote OML’s marketin g initiatives through strategic product promotion and sales promotion. How to cite Downstream Petroleum Industry, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Thank You Letter Samples free essay sample

The following are a few examples of thank you letters found on the career and job search advice website â€Å"Quintessential Careers†: http://www. quintcareers. com/ A Free General Thank You Letter Sample Mr. Archie Weatherby California Investments, Inc. 25 Sacramento Street San Francisco, CA 94102 Dear Mr. Weatherby, Thank you for taking the time to discuss the insurance broker position at California Investments, Inc. , with me. After meeting with you and observing the companys operations, I am further convinced that my background and skills coincide well with your needs. I really appreciate that you took so much time to acquaint me with the company. It is no wonder that California Investments retains its employees for so long. I feel I could learn a great deal from you and would certainly enjoy working with you. In addition to my qualifications and experience, I will bring excellent work habits and judgment to this position. We will write a custom essay sample on Thank You Letter Samples or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page With the countless demands on your time, I am sure that you require people who can be trusted to carry out their responsibilities with minimal supervision. I look forward, Mr. Weatherby, to hearing from you concerning your hiring decision. Again, thank you for your time and consideration. Sincerely, John Oakley A Thank You Letter that Stresses Fit Dr. Steven Page Rolling Hills School Health Clinic 5 Main Street San Francisco, CA 94102 Dear Dr. Page: Thank you so much for taking the time to interview me today for the social worker position. I felt a wonderful rapport not only with you, but with the whole Rolling Hills School Health Clinic staff. I am more convinced than ever that I will fit in beautifully as a member of the team and contribute my skills and talents for the benefit of schoolchildren in the Rolling Hills district. I can make myself available for any further discussions of my qualifications that may be needed. Again, Dr. Page, I very much appreciate you and your staff taking so much time to talk with me about this exciting opportunity. Sincerely, John Oakley A Thank You Letter that Builds on Strengths of the Interview Dr. David Kresgee Great Fault Labs 5 Main Street San Francisco, CA 94102 Dear Dr. Kresgee: Id like to thank you for talking with me about the research- assistant position in your seismology lab. I truly appreciate all the time and care you took in telling me about the job and learning more about me. Im so pleased that you agree that my senior research project in seismology provides me with excellent experience for this position. I am eager to bring my passion for seismology to the research-assistant position, and I am convinced the knowledge and experience Ive already cultivated make me the best researcher for the job. I very much look forward to learning of your decision soon. Please feel free to contact me if you need more information about my qualifications. Thank you again for the exhilarating interview. Sincerely, John Oakley A Thank You Letter that Entices the Employer Note: This letter is a bit lengthy, but it does a good job of summing up the strengths of the interview and enticing the employer with the idea that hiring this candidate means that more ideas and innovations cannot be far behind. Ms. Sentra Nessen Dayton Sumner Memorial Art Museum 203 Harbor Street Baltimore, MD Dear Ms. Nessen: I want to thank you for taking the time to interview me yesterday for the position of assistant director of the Dayton Sumner Memorial Art Museum. You, Mr. Dawson, and Dr. Acquino exuded warmth, and I know we could all have an excellent working relationship. As I further studied the job description for the position, I grew even more confident that I could take the museum to new heights of success. With the resources Ive gathered, I am ready to hit the ground running with grant-writing. The 15 percent bonus for grants brought in is an excellent incentive, and I would devote a significant portion of my time to this important venture. I also have a number of great ideas for community and media relations and am excited by your interest in bringing more schoolchildren to the museum. As I mentioned when we met, I would like to use my fine arts degree and journalism minor to enhance the museums identity while at the same time meeting the needs and expectations of the community. I believe I can make a significant contribution to the fundraising effort, and I am particularly interested in exploring a corporate donor program. I am convinced I could bring a new degree of organization to the museum, including sinking my teeth into making the workspace far less chaotic and far more functional. More importantly, Id like to get communications on track so that newsletters and invitations are sent out on a timely basis. I have some ideas for making the newsletter more userfriendly. I feel it is extremely important to maintain close communication between the board and director, and I am committed to doing so. Ms. Nessen, I thank you again for considering me for this position. I look forward to the possibility of working with you. Sincerely, John Oakley A Thank You Letter that Aims at Damage Control Mrs. Walter Mellish Greenley Corp. , Inc. 1010 Madison Avenue New York, NY Dear Mrs. Mellish: Thank you for the time you took to interview me for the seminar leader position. After our interview, Im convinced that I have the three ingredients youre looking for in your workshop/seminar leaders. I know you expressed some concern in our meeting that I have not worked in a personnel department. I want to stress, however, that I have participated significantly in the hiring process for my sorority and have a solid record of achievement in my human-resources classes. As for your requirement for public-speaking experience, my having been leader of new-student orientation groups at my college for three years, along with outstanding grades in my public-speaking classes, qualify me nicely. Finally, I have enclosed some writing samples to further demonstrate the third ingredient, my communications skills. Thank you again, Mrs. Mellish, for this wonderful opportunity to interview for the seminar leader position. I promise you I wont let you down if you give me the chance to show what I can do. I eagerly await the next step in the process. Sincerely, Jane Oakley A Thank You Letter that Mentions Interview Afterthoughts Ms. Tess Bonwitt Razzle Magazine 1010 Madison Avenue New York, NY Dear Ms. Bonwit: Id like to thank you for the time you spent talking with me about the marketing-research analyst position you have open at Razzle magazine. I am very excited about this position and convinced that my marketing training equips me more than adequately for the job. I meant to mention during the interview that last summer I attended a three-week intensive seminar on SPSS, the foremost marketing-research software package. I know the job description mentions the ability to use SPSS, and I wanted to make sure you knew that I am extremely well-versed in the use of this software. Please contact me if you have any questions about my ability with this program or about any of my other qualifications. As you know, my work-study position in the institutional research office here at Rutgers provided an excellent background for marketing- research work. I look forward to hearing from you soon about the position, and I again thank you for meeting with me. Sincerely, John Oakley A Thank You Letter Following Interview with an On-Campus Recruiter Ms. Lacy Stilwell Holbrooks, Inc. 100 Fifth Avenue New York, NY Dear Ms. Stilwell: Thanks so much for talking with me today about the position in fashion merchandising at Holbrooks. I was truly inspired by the energy and dedication to the company that you brought to our interview. I am positive that I have what it takes to bring the same kind of energy and dedication to your company. As I mentioned, Holbrooks has been my first choice for fashion since before I was a pre-teen. I bought the suit I wore to our interview at Holbrooks! My education has equipped me for this job, and my enthusiasm will ensure my success. My internships with several local apparel stores have taught me a great deal about meeting the needs of target market segments. I would like to take the next step in this process and discuss the position further with you at your office in the Long Beach store. I plan to contact your secretary on Friday to schedule a mutually convenient time to meet. Again, Ms. Stilwell, I thank you most sincerely for your time, your energy, and the inspiration you gave me to launch my career at Holbrooks. Sincerely, Jane Oakley A Free Sample Thank You Letter for a Career/Job Fair Mr. Gary Barnett Aerial Communications, Inc. 3407 W. MLK Jr. Blvd. Tampa, FL 33607 Dear Mr. Barnett, Thank you for taking the time to meet with me at the Central Florida Career Fair today. I certainly appreciate your time and attention in the midst of so many students seeking jobs. You were extremely thorough in explaining Aerials customer service and marketing trainee program. Now that I have a better idea of what the position entails, I am even more sure that I would be an asset to your team and to Aerial. My solid education from Stetson Universitys Marketing Department and the fact that I have worked my way through college show a work ethic and determination, two qualities you said were important to success at Aerial. I look forward to an opportunity to visit Aerials Tampa office and speak to you further about the trainee program. I will contact you next week to arrange an appointment. Thank you again for your time and consideration. Sincerely, Rebecca Leddyfern Free Sample Career Networking Thank You Letter Ms. Barnett Jones UPP Business Systems, Inc. 1000 SW 4th Avenue Portland, OR 97204 Dear Barnett, Thank you again for agreeing to be a member of my personal network. This is an important time in my life as I take the plunge to change careers, and I truly value the advice of professionals like you who know the consulting field so well. I especially appreciate your offer to introduce me to other professionals and consults in your network, which I know will be extremely helpful to me in establishing myself. Barnett, I cant thank you enough for your willingness to help me launch this next phase of my career. I will be sure to keep you informed of my progress. And please do not hesitate to contact me if you think of any additional suggestions for expanding my network and establishing myself as a consultant.